Jet Propulsion Aviation
After the end of war all aircraft industry aimed at the soonest possible establishment of jet propulsion aviation. To achieve this purpose, the problems concerning overcoming the sonic barrier, as well as the problems of supersonic aerodynamics, flight dynamics, structural efficiency, life support, etc., had to be solved. Bearing this in mind, the Institute's experts developed and realized the method of aerodynamic research with winged models dropped from aircraft. The researches into supersonic and hypersonic speed were carried on using unmanned rocket-launched models.
“ The Institute's experts developed and realized the method of aerodynamic research with winged models dropped from aircraft.”
The scientists, engineers, and test pilots of the Institute made an invaluable contribution into the creation of the first home-produced jet fighters. In the early 50s, many previously unknown peculiarities of supersonic dynamics were studied on MiG-15, MiG-17, and MiG-19 planes. High speeds had required new engine units, and the Institute flight-tested E-50 and SM-50 planes equipped with combined propulsion systems, which consisted of turbojet and liquid-fuel rocket engines.Flight research and debugging of such combined power units and experimental turbojet engines was carried out aboard flying laboratories based on production planes Tu-2, Pe-8, Tu-16, Tu-95, etc.
All in all, more than sixty models of prototype and modified turbojet engines were air-tested aboard these flying laboratories. The Institute's experts also participated in flight-testing of propulsion systems of all the combat , transport , and civil aircraft. The Flight Research Institute made an integrated contribution into creation of the first domestic supersonic airliner Tu-144. In order to ensure safety of Tu-144's maiden mission, more than 150 flights have been made on its flying analog, MiG-21I. While harnessing supersonic speeds, research into life support systems for the crew became one of the most important directions of the Institute's activities. In fact, its first test-bed was a thermal vacuum chamber. And it is at that time when the first oxygen units and pressure suits for high-altitude flights were developed. To ensure safe emergency escape, the integrated research was carried out seeking to determine the shape of a recovery system needed. The first home-produced ejection seats were mounted on MiG-19 and La-15 aircraft. “ In order to ensure safety of Tu-144's maiden mission, more than 150 flights have been made on its flying analog, MiG-21I.” The Gromov Institute together with "Zvezda" plant developed the unitized K-36 ejection seat. Now these seats are installed on all the modern combat aircraft ensuring safe emergency escape in full range of speeds and altitudes. In order to increase flying ranges, the Institute devised and developed the "wing-to-wing" and "probe-and-drogue" mid-air refueling systems. Both systems are now used in the field forces.
The Institute's pilots during long-range flights have demonstrated the effectiveness of such refueling. In 70s, when a new generation of civil aircraft, such as II-86, Yak-40, Tu-144, etc., was under development, the Institute's scientists were busy devising emergency evacuation and survival means for passengers and crews. On the horizontal stand,the technique was developed for dynamic tests of passenger seats and personal fixation aids. Comprehensive testing of evacuation means for all the types of civil aircraft was performed in the Institute's Stand and Marine Centers. The research into jet control, carried out aboard the Institute-developed Turbolyot flying model, presented a basis for creation of domestic vertical take-off aircraft Yak-36, Yak-38, and Yak-40. The Institute proposed deck takeoff for such reduced run aircraft, which considerably increases their payload capacity. Further development of shipborne aircraft is also associated with the Gromov Institute' s work. It has carried out wide-ranging research concerning development of deck landing without optical glissade flattening,initiated usage of take off ramp and intensively flight-tested in this direction. Certification of aircraft, their engines and equipment in full accordance with the internationally established practice has been introduced in this country since 1974. The Gromov Right Research Institute was appointed the parent enterprise to issue the Certificates on Adequacy for the Standards of Air-Worthiness on the production stage of the certification, the most time-consuming of all. The integrated Certificate on Adequacy for the Standards was prepared in association with the State Research Institute of Civil Aviation.